Thus, with time, the French 75 batteries became routinely used to cut corridors with high-explosive shells, across the belts of German barbed wire. October 1917, Range tables for French 75-/mm Gun Model 1897, 75 Millimeter Gun Material Model of 1897 M1 (French). gun. Enlisted men from the countryside took care of the 6 horses that pulled each gun and its first limber. Colonel Joseph-Albert Deport, at the time the Director of the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux (APX), and asked him whether he could construct a gun on the general principle of the Haussner long-cylinder recoil without infringing the existing patents. The 75mm Pack Howitzer M1 used the same projectiles fired from a smaller 75x272R case. However, this is just a myth. French artillery team run up behind a field gun -- next to gun is a metal case with shells. A substantial number had been delivered to Poland in 1919–20, together with infantry ordnance, in order to fight in the Polish-Soviet War. Perhaps people gonna write about muzzle velocity and armor piercing ability but that a not really a big deal. The independent sight had also been perfected for easy field use by the crews, and a nickel-steel shield was added to protect the gunners. This problem was solved by equipping the field artillery regiments with the French 75mm mle 1897 field gun. A version used on the early Medium Tank M3. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun.  . A major improvement was the placement of improved silver-alloy rings on the freely moving piston which separated the compressed air and the hydraulic fluid inside the main hydro-pneumatic recoil cylinder. The same rounds used in the 76mm gun could penetrate 6 to 7 inches of armor. Each Mle 1897 75 mm field gun battery (4 guns) was manned by highly trained crews of 170 men led by 4 officers recruited among graduates of engineering schools. These and other modifications achieved the desired result: the long-term retention of hydraulic fluid and compressed air inside the recoil system, even under the worst field conditions. They also learned that Krupp was considering introducing the system after testing it. The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. 3-4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling), A 5.3-kilogram (12 lb) impact-detonated, thin-walled steel, high-explosive (HE) shell with a time-delay, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 14:25. The '75 mm modèle 1922', '75 mm modèle 1924' and '75 mm modèle 1927' of 50 calibre were developed from the 62.5 calibre '75 mm Schneider modèle 1908' mounted on the Danton-class battleships. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). The first US artillery shots in action in World War I were fired by Battery C, 6th Field Artillery on October 23, 1917 with a French 75 named "Bridget" which is preserved today at the United States Army Ordnance Museum. 3. 15-30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) Some French guns were modernized between the wars, in part to adapt them for anti-tank fire, resulting in the Canon de 75 Mle 1897/33 which fired a high-explosive anti-tank shell. M72 was replaced by the 6.8 kg (15 lb) M61 and later the improved M61A1 APC Shell. Uses the same ammunition and has the same ballistics as the M3. U.S. armored doctrine in World War II saw the tank as a deep-attack or exploitation vehicle. The aerodynamic ballistic cap acted as a windscreen and improved ballistic performance, maintained velocity, and retained penetration at longer ranges. At the time the contribution of 75 mm artillery to these military successes, and thus to the French victories that ensued, was seen as significant. The Canon de 75 modèle 1897 is still used in France as a saluting gun. There was also the M88 base-ejecting smoke round and the M89 White Phosphorus (WP or "Willy Pete") round which proved highly effective in the Bocage fighting around Normandy. By 1944 this had become the standard British tank gun equipping the Cromwell tank and Churchill tank for the campaigns in northwest Europe. The armor piercing cap,made of a softer metal, helped to prevent shell shatter at higher velocities and against sloped and "face-hardened" armor. Initially produced under great secrecy, with details of its design jealously guarded by the French government, the soixante-quinze went on to have a long, worldwide history of service that lasted well into World War II. French 75 mm field gun Mle 1897, designated in Poland as 75 mm armata wz. Find books field gun… The total consumption of 75 mm shells at Verdun during the period February 21 to September 30, 1916, is documented by the public record at the Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre to have been in excess of 16 million rounds, or nearly 70% of all shells fired by French artillery during that battle. During the breakout from Normandy American and British forces encountered the new generation of heavy German tanks and armored vehicles such as the Panther tank, Tiger I tank and Jagdpanzer IV tank destroyer in quantity for the first time. During his service with the American Expeditionary Forces, Captain (and future U.S. President) Harry S. Truman commanded a battery of French 75s. Some models were modernized at Resita works in 1935 including French md. The 75s also became widely used as truck mounted anti-aircraft artillery. Equipped American and British vehicles such as the Medium Tank M4, the later models of the Medium Tank M3 and the Churchill III/IV (scavenged from General Sherman tanks in the North African theatre). These guns had the great disadvantage for tank use of not having a truly effective High Explosive round or not even having the option of a HE round. The French 75 set the pattern for almost all early-20th century field pieces, with guns of mostly 75 mm forming the basis of many field artillery units into the early stages of World War II. The smoothness of this system had no equal in 1897, and for at least another ten years. My father trained on the 3 inch gun while originally with the tank destroyers. Canister was used primarily in the Pacific. Rimailho. Another 6 horses pulled each additional limber and caisson which were assigned to each gun. The 75 mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame , which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75 mm M1897 field gun.The tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. Most modern at a time of its design, it remained in a frontline service until World War II. The French 75 gave its best performances during the Battle of the Marne in August–September 1914 and at Verdun in 1916. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. The manually loaded 75 mm SA 49 gun. During the 1930s, most M1897A2 and A3 (French made) and M1897A4 (American made) guns were subsequently modernized for towing behind trucks by mounting on the modern carriage M2A3 which featured a split trail, pneumatic rubber tires allowing towing at any speed, an elevation limit increased to 45 degrees, and traverse increased to 30 degrees left and right. British and American Artillery of World War II, Ian V. Hogg, Arms & Armour Press, 1978, p. 22, Canon de 75 mm. It was also in service with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF), which had been supplied with about 2,000 French 75 field guns. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourgesarsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. When the barrel recoiled, the piston was pulled back by the barrel's recoil and thus pushed the oil through a small orifice and into a second cylinder placed underneath. After reviewing the blueprints in February 1892, the French artillery engineers advised that a gun should be produced without purchasing the Haussner invention. Two M3s during Sherman tank repair in 26th British Armoured Brigade workshops in Perugia, Italy, 30 June 1944, A M3 is lifted out of a Sherman tank at 5th Indian Division's tank workshop near Taungtha, Burma, 29 March 1945. The primary round was the M48 High Explosive. Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. The 75-mm Aircraft gun M4 ia a modification of the M3 gun which is found in medium tanks. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourges arsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to … I don't think this 3 inch gun he trained on is a French gun. HOWEVER, the French 75 was not the weapon the French needed in WWI. The Deport 75 was returned to Puteaux arsenal for further improvements. American industry built 1,050 French 75s during World War I, but only 143 had been shipped to France by 11 November 1918; most American batteries used French-built 75s in action. In 1891 Haussner sold his patents to a firm named Gruson, which searched for potential buyers. WiththeexceptionoftheGerman 42,"noguninthewar hascreatedmoreinterestthanthefamousFrench75-mra. 1) Vieille's smokeless powder, which was introduced in 1884. 75-mm Gun. FRENCH 75MM GUN - The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery. It differs from the M3 gun, only in having a seat for the spline machined in the tube. By the end of the war about 12,000 had been produced. Krupp would later reject Haussner's invention, due to insoluble technical problems caused by hydraulic fluid leakage. The 76mm gun was also able to fire shells at a higher velocity. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War II artillery of the United States, List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation, Armor penetration table of US 75 mm guns, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/75_mm_Gun_M2/M3/M6?oldid=4377477, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 60 mm, Armour penetration (M72 AP shell, 457 m, at 90 degrees): 76 mm, TM 9-2800 Standard Artillery and Fire Control Material (dated February 1944). The 75mm M2 and M3 tank guns of the M3 Lee and M4 Sherman Medium tanks, the 75mm M6 tank gun of the M24 Chaffee light tank and the 75mm gun of the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell bomber all used the same ammunition as the M1897. US Army also experimented with mounting of the M3 on various wheeled carriages for use as anti-tank gun, but the program was cancelled due to lack of requirement.. The French Navy adopted the 75mm modèle 1897 for its coastal batteries and warships. 1903. Elevation range of the gun in this turret was +13 to -6 degrees. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: 1. FROM "L'ECOLE DU COMMANDANT DU BATTERIE, I PARTIE, CANON 75", Of THE FRENCH ARTILLERY SCHOOL, OF DECEMBER, 1916, CORRECTED TO MARCH, 1917. They had been designed for the specific purpose of inflicting maximum casualties on enemy troops stationing or advancing in the open. 1897(1897 Pattern cannon), was one of most important artillery systems ever. Conceived by Major Deport and manufactured by different French arsenals, it is usually associated with Schneider firm (although some claim, that Schneider actually did not produce these guns). DISPONIBILE FINE OTTOBRE 2020. In practice the majority of M61 rounds were shipped without the explosive filler. At the beginning in 1914, the French 75 fired two main types of shells, both with high muzzle velocities (535 m/s for the shrapnel shell ) and a maximum range of 8,500 meters. While the tank's main gun was considered satisfactory, its armor was deemed to be too light. The US 75 mm gun tank gun M2 and the later M3 were the standard American tank guns of the Second World War. France 75 mm/35 (2.95") Model 1925 and 1928. Over 17,500 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns were produced during World War I, over and above the 4,100 French 75s which were already deployed by the French Army in August 1914. Pages 80–93 in "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench matériel (1920)" United States. In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: The only major design difference between the 57 and 75 that would emerge was the recoil system. were used in all infantry divisions in World War II. Centre des archives de l'armement et du personnel civil 578 1F3 477, on Alienor.org -, Naval Norman Friedman Weapons of World War One, Seaforth Publishing, 2011, p. 227. The British after experiencing the effectiveness of the American 75mm tank guns in the infantry support role opted to adopt the American caliber and ammunition by the expedient of boring-out the 6 pounder tank gun to make the Ordnance QF 75 mm. Location of events unknown. The US Army adopted the French 75 mm field gun during World War I and used it extensively in battle. Each recoil cycle on the French 75, including the return forward, lasted about two seconds, permitting a maximum attainable firing rate of about 30 rounds per minute. In the 1930s the French Army sought a replacement for the derivatives of the 75 mm mle 1897 field gun it used as an anti-tank gun. Every shell, whether it be a high-explosive or shrapnel shell, was fixed to a brass case which was automatically ejected when the breech was opened. The 75mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75mm M1897 field gun. There is a very large difference between the French data on the performance of the 47mm/L53 and the German data. Planche XXI : canon G de 75 mil. An early adaption of the weapon was for anti-aircraft purposes. The major difference of ATG is specialized gun carriage. Finally there was the Armor-piercing for which 2 different rounds were provided.  Older artillery had to be resighted after each shot in order to stay on target, and thus fired no more than two aimed shots per minute. The public saw it for the first time during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899. If enemy tanks were encountered in numbers, specialist Tank Destroyer units were to be called in. The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece. The M48 was available in 2 versions, standard or supercharge which increased the propellent charge for greater muzzle velocity (1,885 ft/s (575 m/s) vs. 1,470 ft/s (450 m/s)) and range (2,300 yards greater). Can anyone give me the skinny on this? The tank's job was to pour through a breach in the enemy front line created by infantry and artillery and exploit that breach by attacking the enemy rear. Download books for free. The French 75 easily delivered fifteen aimed rounds per minute and could fire even faster for short periods of time (however, the long-term sustained rate was only 3-4 rounds per minute; more than this would overheat the barrel). The French artillery entered the war in August 1914 with more than 4,000 Mle 1897 75 mm field guns (1,000 batteries of 4 guns each). Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. But even before the 57 entered testing, in 1890 General Mathieu, Director of Artillery at the Ministry of War, had been informed that Konrad Haussner, a German engineer working at the Ingolstadt arsenal, had patented an oil-and-compressed-air long-recoil system.  This rate of fire, the gun's accuracy, and the lethality of the ammunition against personnel, made the French 75 superior to all other regimental field artillery at the time. What a great result, big thanks David, I keep on reading about a gun called 75mm Schneider nle 1914 but I cant find any data, is it the same as the 75mm Puteaux mle 1897/33 ?, one more thing David, are the above AA guns all 75mm L/51, because this weapon keeps cropping up in my French … The main gun was seen as a means of overcoming obstacles as the tank proceeded to attack vital enemy rear areas. The barrel was attached near the breech to a piston rod extending into an oil-filled cylinder placed just underneath the gun. This moring I you tubed 88mm flak gun and saw it … This allowed it to be used in an anti-aircraft role. € 15,50 . In order to increase shell production from 20,000 rounds per day to 100,000 in 1915, the government turned to civilian contractors, and, as a result, shell quality deteriorated. modèle 1897 sur affût de campagne modèle 1897 approprié aux côtes. However, as an anti-tank gun, the gun was mediocre at best: its low muzzle velocity (570 m/s, caused by the short L/36 barrel and obsolete French 75mm ammo) allowed it to penetrate only 75mm armor at 500m (in World of Tanks terms, it’s probably somewhere around 90mm pen). The tank's primary armament was seen as its machine guns and sheer bulk and crushing power. New 75 mm guns were developed specifically for anti-aircraft use. The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. Besides use on the two main American medium tanks of the war the M3 Lee (M2 or M3 gun) and the M4 Sherman (M3 gun).  It was the first field gun to include a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. During the barrel's recoil the floating piston was forced forward by the oil, compressing the air even further. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. Recueil de renseignements sur le matériel et les munitions de l'artillerie de côte. For example according to the French Ministry of Defense the shot should penetrate 89mm @ 0° @ 500m. Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could reload and fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position. They are used for State ceremonies. A truck-mounted anti-aircraft version of the French 75 was assembled by the automobile firm of De Dion-Bouton and adopted in 1913. M2 75 mm gun as mounted in medium tank M3. British tanks in the early years of World War II relied on high-velocity anti-tank guns such as the Ordnance QF 2 pounder and Ordnance QF 6 pounder for their primary armament. M61 had a muzzle velocity of 620 m/s (2,030 ft/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 3.7 inches (94 mm) of armor plate at 500 yards range, which was a quite acceptable performance by the standards of 1942. A battery included 160 horses, most of them pulling ammunition as well as repair and supply caissons. This was actually a APCBCHE-T or Armor Piercing, Capped, Ballistic-Capped, High Explosive Tracer type round which contained a tracer element so the gunner could follow the trajectory of the round to make corrections for the next shot if necessary. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. In between the wars the US army kept the mle 1897 as their main field gun and these came in a number of variants, the initial versions made in France, versions built under licence in the US, and later versions with slightly different carriages. The gun could be traversed laterally 3 degrees to the sides by sliding the trail on the wheel's axle. When the U.S. became involved in World War I, space on ships was limited and manpower had priority over heavy equipment, so American troops often used French heavy equipment, including this 75mm field gun. The total production of 75 mm shells during World War I exceeded 200 million rounds, mostly by private industry. Over 3,500 were modified with a muzzle brake and mounted on a 5 cm Pak 38 carriage, now named 7.5 cm Pak 97/38 they were used by the Wehrmacht in 1942 as an emergency weapon against the Soviet Union's T-34 and KV tanks. In March of 1945 he wrote to the commanding generals of both the US 2nd and 3rdArmored Divisions on the subject of the Panther, stating: From time to time I find short stories where some reporter is purpor… Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897. The original schedule 2 agreed between Saint-Chamond and the French Army for the armament of the Saint-Chamond tank was that the tanks up to No.150 should have the 75mm St-Chamond gun, Nos. sitalkes wrote:I've been reading about the American WW1 guns sent to Britain in 1940 and wonder if somebody can clear up a few points for me.As I understand it, the 18 pounder had a 3.3"/84mm bore. The long-range Canon de 75 modèle 1897 is still used in all infantry divisions in War. Without permission and the long-range Canon de 75 modèle 1897 approprié aux côtes was passed for. And mobile French 75mm field-gun being used by the oil, compressing the air even further and has same! 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