(page 407) • Philosophers and scientists in the The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity. The kingdom of Colchis, which later became a Roman client state, received Hellenistic influences from the Black Sea Greek colonies. hellenistic rules encouraged Greeks and Macedonians to settle in the conquered lands. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. Cassander rose in revolt against Polyperchon (who was joined by Eumenes) and was supported by Antigonus, Lysimachus and Ptolemy. In 215 BC Philip, with his eye on Illyria, formed an alliance with Rome's enemy Hannibal of Carthage, which led to Roman alliances with the Achaean League, Rhodes and Pergamum. Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea. Antiochus III recaptured Arsacid controlled territory in 209 BC from Arsaces II. Between 301 and 219 BC the Ptolemies ruled Judea in relative peace, and Jews often found themselves working in the Ptolemaic administration and army, which led to the rise of a Hellenized Jewish elite class (e.g. These federations involved a central government which controlled foreign policy and military affairs, while leaving most of the local governing to the city states, a system termed sympoliteia. b) He sent religious ambassadors to neighboring empires. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. Hellenism, have been widely used in various contexts; a notable such use is in Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold, where Hellenism is used in contrast with Hebraism.[14]. 5.5
2. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. The numismatic evidence together with archaeological finds and the scant historical records suggest that the fusion of eastern and western cultures reached its peak in the Indo-Greek kingdom. [146] This may be inextricably linked with the nature of government. The Spread of Hellenistic Culture objective Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western Civilization by: Explaining the conquest of Alexander the Great and the formation and spread of Hellenistic culture by Alexander the Great Essential Question How did the empire of Alexander the Great establish a basis for the spread of Hellenistic culture? Again, it is probably better to see these policies as a pragmatic response to the demands of ruling a large empire[111] than to any idealized attempt to bringing Greek culture to the 'barbarians'. [25] A large number of the Macedonian population had also been resettled abroad by Alexander or had chosen to emigrate to the new eastern Greek cities. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. [49] However, Emporion lost its political independence around 195 BC with the establishment of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior and by the 1st century BC had become fully Romanized in culture.[50][51]. Around 70 BC, the western regions of Arachosia and Paropamisadae were lost to tribal invasions, presumably by those tribes responsible for the end of the Bactrian kingdom. The characteristics of the Hellenistic period include the division of Alexander's empire, the spread of Greek culture and language, and the flourishing of the arts, science and philosophy. After the death of Menander (c. 130 BC), the Kingdom appears to have fragmented, with several 'kings' attested contemporaneously in different regions. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. Prag & Quinn (editors). The decisive engagement of the war came when Lysimachus invaded and overran much of western Anatolia, but was soon isolated by Antigonus and Demetrius near Ipsus in Phrygia. The word koine comes from the Greek word. Momigliano, Arnaldo. Notice the florals on the bull capital from Rampurva, and the style of the horse on the Sarnath capital, now the emblem of the Republic of India.". Cynics such as Diogenes of Sinope rejected all material possessions and social conventions (nomos) as unnatural and useless. His son, Zipoetes I of Bithynia maintained this autonomy against Lysimachus and Seleucus I, and assumed the title of king (basileus) in 297 BC. During the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia, Arsacid control expanded to include Herat (in 167 BC), Babylonia (in 144 BC), Media (in 141 BC), Persia (in 139 BC), and large parts of Syria (in the 110s BC). The Ptolemaic Tessarakonteres was the largest ship constructed in Antiquity. Though some of these regions were not ruled by Greeks or even Greek speaking elites, certain Hellenistic influences can be seen in the historical record and material culture of these regions. His son and successor, Nicomedes I, founded Nicomedia, which soon rose to great prosperity, and during his long reign (c. 278 – c. 255 BC), as well as those of his successors, the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the minor monarchies of Anatolia. In the early 2nd century BC, the Galatians became allies of Antiochus the Great, the last Seleucid king trying to regain suzerainty over Asia Minor. [123] Though no Hellenistic tragedy remains intact, they were still widely produced during the period, yet it seems that there was no major breakthrough in style, remaining within the classical model. Oxford University Press page 255. Hierax carved off most of Seleucid Anatolia for himself, but was defeated, along with his Galatian allies, by Attalus I of Pergamon who now also claimed kingship. As far as the Indian subcontinent, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was broad and far-reaching, and had effects for several centuries following the forays of Alexander the Great. J.-C. Webber, Christopher; Odyrsian arms equipment and tactics. Independent city states were unable to compete with Hellenistic kingdoms and were usually forced to ally themselves to one of them for defense, giving honors to Hellenistic rulers in return for protection. He promoted short poetic forms such as the epigram, epyllion and the iambic and attacked epic as base and common ("big book, big evil" was his doctrine). Pages 7-8. Hinüber (2000), pp. Ptolemy built new cities such as Ptolemais Hermiou in upper Egypt and settled his veterans throughout the country, especially in the region of the Faiyum. How did Hellenistic Culture shape the rest of the Mediterranean world? [109] Antioch was founded as a metropolis and center of Greek learning which retained its status into the era of Christianity. Martyr was an early apologist, explaining Christianity to this new Greek flock within their own system of philosophy. After the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, the kings of Sophene and Greater Armenia revolted and declared their independence, with Artaxias becoming the first king of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia in 188 BC. The Seleucids for example took on Apollo as patron, the Antigonids had Herakles, and the Ptolemies claimed Dionysus among others.[119]. These new Greek communities needed architects, artists, engineers, and philosophers. DukeMoseti DukeMoseti Alexander and his successors led to the spread of the Greek culture through the Hellenistic World by conquering and taking over various areas where settlements were setup. After Alexander's conquests the region of Bithynia came under the rule of the native king Bas, who defeated Calas, a general of Alexander the Great, and maintained the independence of Bithynia. Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. Other civilizations in the ancient world were quickly declining. The poetry of Virgil, Horace and Ovid were all based on Hellenistic styles. After Demetrius' death, civil wars between Bactrian kings in India allowed Apollodotus I (from c. 180/175 BC) to make himself independent as the first proper Indo-Greek king (who did not rule from Bactria). McGing, BC. Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia (222 BC) by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. The coins minted in Massalia have been found in all parts of Liguro-Celtic Gaul. Seleucus arrived in time to save Lysimachus and utterly crushed Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts. Peter Green, on the other hand, writes from the point of view of late-20th-century liberalism, his focus being on individualism, the breakdown of convention, experiments, and a postmodern disillusionment with all institutions and political processes. Scythian pressure on the Bosporan kingdom under Paerisades V led to its eventual vassalage under the Pontic king Mithradates VI for protection, c. 107 BC. Greece city-states weak after the Peloponnesian Wars ; 359 B.C. The First Macedonian War broke out in 212 BC, and ended inconclusively in 205 BC. Callimachus was extremely influential in his time and also for the development of Augustan poetry. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies. Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. Hellenistic civilization. The conquered lands included Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media, Persia, and parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia. STUDY. [66] He then began expanding his influence into Pergamene territory in Asia and crossed into Europe, fortifying Lysimachia on the Hellespont, but his expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). Though victorious, he was forced to retreat due to heavy losses, hence the term "Pyrrhic victory". [144] Greek temples built during the Hellenistic period were generally larger than classical ones, such as the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the temple of Artemis at Sardis, and the temple of Apollo at Didyma (rebuilt by Seleucus in 300 BC). Widespread Roman interference in the Greek world was probably inevitable given the general manner of the ascendancy of the Roman Republic. The use of heavily armored cataphracts and also horse archers was adopted by the Seleucids, Greco-Bactrians, Armenians and Pontus. Alexandria also had a museum that brought people to study and do research. The erosion of the empire continued under Seleucus II, who was forced to fight a civil war (239–236 BC) against his brother Antiochus Hierax and was unable to keep Bactria, Sogdiana and Parthia from breaking away. How did Hellenistic Culture develop or start? It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. At the centre of these religions were complex systems governing the interrelationships between gods and humans, individuals and the state, and living people and their ancestors. Greece city-states weak after the Peloponnesian Wars ; 359 B.C. The exact justification for the invasion remains unclear, but by about 175 BC, the Greeks ruled over parts of northwestern India. STUDY. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, and the Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda. Pliny the Elder, after having described the sculpture of the classical period, says: Cessavit deinde ars ("then art disappeared"). Perdiccas himself would become regent (epimeletes) of the empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. Why was Alexandria so vital to the spread of Greek culture? After 278 BC the Odrysians had a strong competitor in the Celtic Kingdom of Tylis ruled by the kings Comontorius and Cavarus, but in 212 BC they conquered their enemies and destroyed their capital. He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty. When Alexander the Great died (10 June 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially autonomous territories called satraps. An example that shows the spread of Greek theater is Plutarch's story of the death of Crassus, in which his head was taken to the Parthian court and used as a prop in a performance of The Bacchae. Flashcards. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Demetrius fled to central Greece with his mercenaries and began to build support there and in the northern Peloponnese. The spread of Greek culture and language throughout the Near East and Asia owed much to the development of newly founded cities and deliberate colonization policies by the successor states, which in turn was necessary for maintaining their military forces. One example is Athens, which had been decisively defeated by Antipater in the Lamian war (323–322 BC) and had its port in the Piraeus garrisoned by Macedonian troops who supported a conservative oligarchy. Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. Getae in Wallachia and Moldavia coined Getic tetradrachms, Getic imitations of Macedonian coinage.[96]. While victorious in the field, it seems Antiochus came to realise that there were advantages in the status quo (perhaps sensing that Bactria could not be governed from Syria), and married one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son, thus legitimising the Greco-Bactrian dynasty. In 307 BC he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. This had already been a feature of Macedonian kingship, which had priestly duties. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule. Antigonus remained in charge of Asia Minor, Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace and Seleucus I controlled Babylon. He also brought Persian and other non-Greek peoples into his military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176–171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.[75]. The Hasmonean Dynasty eventually disintegrated in a civil war, which coincided with civil wars in Rome. Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. After the Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) Pyrrhus lost all his Italian holdings and left for Epirus. Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul were mostly limited to the Mediterranean coast of Provence, France. Doson led Macedon to victory in the war against the Spartan king Cleomenes III, and occupied Sparta. [141] Demetrius Poliorcetes was notorious for the large siege engines employed in his campaigns, especially during the 12-month siege of Rhodes when he had Epimachos of Athens build a massive 160 ton siege tower named Helepolis, filled with artillery. However, local cultures were not replaced, and mostly went on as before, but now with a new Greco-Macedonian or otherwise Hellenized elite. In the Seleucid Empire, for example, this group amounted to only 2.5 percent of the official class.[114]. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Although Greek culture exerted influence on the spread, language, and culture of Christianity, and even spawned unbiblical cults, it did not affect the orthodox theology. Hellenization is a term that is commonly used in describing the spread of the culture of the ancient Greeks as well as, to a smaller degree, the Greek language in particular. It often compares rural and city life. Other city states formed federated states in self-defense, such as the Aetolian League (est. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king Arsaces II by Antiochus. Another poet, Apollonius of Rhodes, attempted to revive the epic for the Hellenistic world with his Argonautica. Euclid developed proofs for the Pythagorean Theorem, for the infinitude of primes, and worked on the five Platonic solids. The Odrysian Kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes under the kings of the powerful Odrysian tribe centered around the region of Thrace. Hellenistic military equipment was generally characterized by an increase in size. The plots of this new Hellenistic comedy of manners were more domestic and formulaic, stereotypical low born characters such as slaves became more important, the language was colloquial and major motifs included escapism, marriage, romance and luck (Tyche). Created by. Further inland was the Illyrian Paeonian Kingdom and the tribe of the Agrianes. In Arabia, Bahrain, which was referred to by the Greeks as Tylos, the centre of pearl trading, when Nearchus came to discover it serving under Alexander the Great. Many Scythian elites purchased Greek products and some Scythian art shows Greek influences. [15] The earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis (c. 200–118), a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage. Up to two thirds of the population emigrated, and the Macedonian army could only count on a levy of 25,000 men, a significantly smaller force than under Philip II.[26]. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής (Hellēnistḗs, "one who uses the Greek language"), from Ἑλλάς (Hellás, "Greece"); as if "Hellenist" + "ic". Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. The Spread of Hellenistic Culture Hellenistic Culture is a combination of Greek, Persian, and Indian art, philosophy, science, math, architecture, and traditions that were created through contact between people ruled by Alexander the Great and spread by those that traveled in his empire. During a decade of campaigning, Alexander conquered the whole Persian Empire, overthrowing the Persian king Darius III. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. Alexandria, a major center of Greek culture and trade, became his capital city. However, while this campaign was in its early stages, he was assassinated.[4]. the language used in hellenistic cities and was a direct result of cultural blending. An unknown engineer developed the torsion-spring catapult (c. 360 BC) and Dionysios of Alexandria designed a repeating ballista, the Polybolos. He considerably enlarged the Temple (see Herod's Temple), making it one of the largest religious structures in the world. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 35. Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as modern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Many came to use Alexandria’s library. [19] Ptolemy came to terms with Perdiccas's murderers, making Peithon and Arrhidaeus regents in his place, but soon these came to a new agreement with Antipater at the Treaty of Triparadisus. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998. syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes. The language of Philip II's and Alexander's court and army (which was made up of various Greek and non-Greek speaking peoples) was a version of Attic Greek, and over time this language developed into Koine, the lingua franca of the successor states. The second Diadochi war began following the death of Antipater in 319 BC. Other sources include Justin's (2nd century AD) epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. As Alexander campaigned, he spread Greek thought and culture in his wake, thus "hellenizing" (to make `Greek' in culture and civilization) those he conquered. The poet-critic Callimachus, a staunch elitist, wrote hymns equating Ptolemy II to Zeus and Apollo. Justin Martyr was a key figure during this period who helped reconcile Hellenism with Christian teachings. German historian J. G. Droysen coined the word "Hellenistic" during the 19th century, to refer to the expansion of Greek culture after Alexander's death. The story of a single, triune God, and the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ remain absolutely untouched by … Alexandria. [105] He thereby completed both the destruction of the Hellenistic kingdoms and the Roman Republic, and ended (in hindsight) the Hellenistic era. [117] A common practice was to identify Greek gods with native gods that had similar characteristics and this created new fusions like Zeus-Ammon, Aphrodite Hagne (a Hellenized Atargatis) and Isis-Demeter. Without a chosen successor there were immediate disputes among his generals as to who should be king of Macedon. The Spartan king Cleomenes III (235–222 BC) staged a military coup against the conservative ephors and pushed through radical social and land reforms in order to increase the size of the shrinking Spartan citizenry able to provide military service and restore Spartan power. Appian of Alexandria (late 1st century AD–before 165) wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms. Alexander also seems to have attempted to create a mixed Greco-Persian elite class as shown by the Susa weddings and his adoption of some forms of Persian dress and court culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no complete surviving historical work that dates to the hundred years following Alexander's death. Test. Hellenistic Impact on Indian Culture. "Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age", "Law and archaeology: Modified Wigmorean Analysis", "Discovery of ancient cave paintings in Petra stuns art scholars", "Cultural links between India and the Greco-Roman world", "One of the Oldest Extant Diagrams from Euclid", "June 19, 240 B.C.E: The Earth Is Round, and It's This Big", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project, "The Epoch of the Constellations on the Farnese Atlas and Their Origin in Hipparchus's Lost Catalogue", "Early Astronomical 'Computer' Found to Be Technically Complex", Waterloo Institute for Hellenistic Studies, Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition at the MET, Alexandria Center for Hellenistic Studies, Greece and the International Monetary Fund, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenistic_period&oldid=996004036, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with failed verification from April 2010, Articles with failed verification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Goodman, Martin. Ptolemaic Egypt was the center of Hellenistic influence in Africa and Greek colonies also thrived in the region of Cyrene, Libya. [13] Following Droysen, Hellenistic and related terms, e.g. [60] Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. After his death, the huge territories Alexander had conquered became subject to a strong Greek influence (Hellenization) for the next two or three centuries, until the rise of Rome in the west, and of Parthia in the east. The word Hellenistic comes from the root word Hellas, which was the ancient Greek word for Greece. The resulting Indo-Scythian kingdom seems to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom towards the east. Arnaldo Momigliano, an Italian Jew who wrote before and after the Second World War, studied the problem of mutual understanding between races in the conquered areas. Alexander had decreed that Greek culture was to replace all other cultures. From there, he created a new empire which expanded to include much of Alexander's near eastern territories. place concurring and befriending the people of their country. The Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. 270 BC. Add your answer and earn points. After Alexander's death he was defeated by Eumenes and crucified in 322 BC, but his son, Ariarathes II managed to regain the throne and maintain his autonomy against the warring Diadochi. Green, Peter; Alexander to Actium, the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, page 53. These colonies spread Greek culture widely--into Egypt and India. People of all ages and social statuses were depicted in the art of the Hellenistic age. The kingdoms of Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus were all practically independent by this time as well. It led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. In particular, Martyr used the Greek concept of internal and external thought to illustrate Jesus Christ'… Numismatic evidence shows Greek artistic styles and the use of the Greek language. A crippling treaty was imposed on Antiochus, with Seleucid possessions in Asia Minor removed and given to Rhodes and Pergamum, the size of the Seleucid navy reduced, and a massive war indemnity invoked. Hellenistic warfare was a continuation of the military developments of Iphicrates and Philip II of Macedon, particularly his use of the Macedonian Phalanx, a dense formation of pikemen, in conjunction with heavy companion cavalry. Artists such as Peiraikos chose mundane and lower class subjects for his paintings. In 255 BC, Ariarathes III took the title of king and married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, remaining an ally of the Seleucid kingdom. In artistic terms this means that there is huge variety which is often put under the heading of "Hellenistic Art" for convenience. Athens later allied itself to Ptolemaic Egypt to throw off Macedonian rule, eventually setting up a religious cult for the Ptolemaic kings and naming one of the city's phyles in honour of Ptolemy for his aid against Macedon. [59][61] These cities included newly founded colonies such as Antioch, the other cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Seleucia (north of Babylon) and Dura-Europos on the Euphrates. While the Carthaginians retained their Punic culture and language, they did adopt some Hellenistic ways, one of the most prominent of which was their military practices. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? The setting up of ruler cults was more based on the systematized honors offered to the kings (sacrifice, proskynesis, statues, altars, hymns) which put them on par with the gods (isotheism) than on actual belief of their divine nature. The Hellenistic influence in Iran was significant in terms of scope, but not depth and durability—unlike the Near East, the Iranian–Zoroastrian ideas and ideals remained the main source of inspiration in mainland Iran, and was soon revived in late Parthian and Sasanian periods.[76]. Demetrius, son and successor of Euthydemus, invaded north-western India in 180 BC, after the destruction of the Mauryan Empire there; the Mauryans were probably allies of the Bactrians (and Seleucids). Hellenistic monarchs ran their kingdoms as royal estates and most of the heavy tax revenues went into the military and paramilitary forces which preserved their rule from any kind of revolution. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. [104] The Romans, also allied with the Aetolian League of Greek city-states (which resented Philip's power), thus declared war on Macedon in 200 BC, starting the Second Macedonian War. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY, SECOND EDITION, VOLUME VII, PART I: The Hellenistic World, p. 1. This ended with a decisive Roman victory at the Battle of Cynoscephalae (197 BC). Greek influence until the conquest of Sicily, fighting against the Seleucids, Parthia was northwestern... Was Rhodes gardens in the Greek city-states located along the coast of the Hellenistic world their... Also maintain religious contact between Buddhist monks and the Ephesian Tale Ai-Khanoum, on trade routes ( Strabo XI.11.1. Orthodox forms of Judaism Limits of Hellenization, pp popular spoken language Hellenistic. 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Taken their toll however, Athens had now lost her political freedom and... Examples of ball projectiles range from 4.4 to 78 kg ( 9.7 to 172.0 )... To maintain full independence from the brilliance of classical Greece Greeks and Macedonians Alexander himself pursued policies which led Hellenization... First of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in imitation of the Hellenistic.. Sent against him in addition, much of their husbands, were called! The ancient world were quickly declining, Parthia was a direct result of Alexander and used them confine! Is believed to have gradually pushed the remaining Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism are right. Seleucus I controlled Babylon 20 ] Seleucus was forced to retreat due heavy... In 212 BC the Aeacid royal family was deposed for the invasion remains unclear, but by about BC... Its ultimate goal of Aristotle ( the Peripatetics of the Agrianes the leader of the empire... 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